The view of Chandax (Heraclion) found in the travel account by B. von Breydenbach (ninth edition in 1502) knew wide success, and was reproduced in travel editions down to the late 17th century, even though it did not correspond to the actual city any more.
The port of Heraklion with its fortifications appears already in the early isolaria, in manuscript or in print. G. Rosaccio's work, published at the and of the 16th century (1598) and nfluenced by earlier similar works, shows a well-organized city, then under Venetian rule. The pilgrim chronicle attributed to Noe Bianco (1600) is adorned with a view of the city, in fact a copy of its first printed depiction which had been published in the late 15th century.
In his remarkable maps, Fr. Basilicata (1618) highlighted the topography and morphology of Heraklion and nearby locations (Paliokastro, Fodele, Malia etc.) through skillful use of colour. The long siege of the city by the Ottomans (mid-17th century), the battles of that period and views of the wall illustrate the work by R. Palmer, published immediately after the fall of the city (1669). The 1669 edition by German painter and engraver J. von Sandrart highlights the strong walls of the Venetian city, while Ol. Dapper's significant historical and geographical treatise (1688) also includes views of Dia islet, Palaiokastron and the strong fortifications of the port. The plates in the work by J. Sandrart (1687) show castles and other location, in their majority under Ottoman rule. Several similar works which highlight the victories of the Venetians against the Ottomans in the Sixth Ottoman-Venetian War (1684-1699) were released during the same period. The same is true of the editions by J. Peeters in the late 17th century (1686 and 1690), which exalt the victories of the Holy League in the Ottoman-Venetian wars. The plates show cities, ports and other locations in Austria, southeastern Europe, the eastern Mediterranean and places in Asia all the way to India and Suadi Arabia.
The invaluable edition by pioneering traveller J. Pitton de Tournefort (1717) includes the first “realistic” view of the city from the route to Rethymno.
Robert Pashley composed a travel account accompanied by innovative illustrations (1837). The narrative of his archaeological tour and the snapshots of everyday life which he describes come alive in the plates showing landscapes, monuments, antiquities and people of Heraklion.
The prolific and successful landscape painter Ed. Lear travelled from the Ionian islands to Crete and toured above all the western part of the island (1864). However, some of his works show the main sights around Heraklion, such as the walls and Knossos. Finally, photographs by celebrated F.F. Boissonnas (first quarter of the 20th century) show Minoan findings, mainly from Knossos, views of the ruins of the same palace and of the site of Agia Triada, all in the artist's groundbreaking style of capturing light and shadow.
Written by Ioli Vingopoulou