Methoni - Pylos
The earliest depiction of Methoni is found in the manuscript of Cr. Buondelmonti’s isolario, of the early 15th century, as it is near the important maritime passage of Messenian Oinoussae islands.
The castle and port of Methoni were depicted for the first time in the travel account of B. von Breydenbach (ninth edition in 1502), in a plate engraved by E. Reuwich. Done in an almost realistic fashion, this picture was a model for all plates representing this major port on the route to the East, down to the 19th century.
B. von Breydenbach is the author of the first printed travel chronicle, enriched with wood engravings (1486). The work depicts views of cities on the maritime route from Venice to Palestine, including Methoni. Breydenbach's view of Methoni became a matrix for later representations of the city, as it was copied in its entirety (such as in N. Bianco, chronicle of 1600 or H. Beauvau, 1615) or with variations numerous times until the end of the 18th century.
Like all similar works, the isolario of Antonio Millo (1582-91) is enriched by engravings already published in contemporary editions. Antonio marks perillous waters on the maps of his isolaria, and uses the place names found in contemporary portolani.
J.A.M. Adelphus’s chronicle of the Venetian-Ottoman wars, published in the early 16th century, depicts Methoni in somewhat more conventional fashion. The isolario by G. Fr. Camocio (1574), a pioneering work which influenced later works such as G. Rosaccio’s isolario (1598) includes engravings of battles between Christians and Ottomans during that period, naturally including those that took place in Methoni.
Copper engravings of Methoni fortress are included in the publications of the Accademia Cosmografica degli Argonauti, directed by V.M. Coronelli, among hundreds of plates representing Venetian victories at various battles during the Venetian-Ottoman war of 1684-87. οθωμThe engravings in the 1708 works by V. M. Coronelli are highly appealing, although most plates repeat subjects already published in earlier editions of the Accademia Cosmografica degli Argonauti. Copies of these drawings, identical or with variations illustrated the reprints or translations of these works, as well as later travel chronicles, history books and geographic publications such as those J.v. Sandrart in 1686 and Ol. Dapperin 1688. The plates in the work by J. Sandrart (1687) show castles and other location, in their majority under Ottoman rule. Several similar works which highlight the victories of the Venetians against the Ottomans in the Sixth Ottoman-Venetian War (1684-1699) were released during the same period.
The editions by J. Peeters in the late 17th century (1686 and 1690) also exalt the victories of the Holy League in the Ottoman-Venetian wars. The plates show cities, ports and other locations in Austria, southeastern Europe, the eastern Mediterranean and places in Asia all the way to India and Saudi Arabia.
Approximately a century later (1771) a cartographic editon by J.N. Bellin with ports of the Ionian and the Adriatic seas reserves Methoni and Southwestern Messenia an important position. At the beginning of the 19th century the entire area is mapped again in J. Roux's index of ports of the Mediterranean.
J. Seller was the creator of the first detailed mapping of the Mediterranean coast, titled “English Pilot...” . First published in the 17th century, it was repeatedly reissued and continued to be used down to the 19th century (here in the 1771 edition). Seller's works established the use of the English language in maritime charts and greatly influenced later cartographic editions. It includes maps of the local shores.
After his journey in Greek lands, at the begining of the 19th century, Stackelberg was able to render historical locations and antiquities in accordance with the emerging tendency of romanticism (1834). The drawings of W. Black (1822-26) are an invaluable source for the country's history, as they are among the scarce pictures from the era of the Greek Revolution. Panoramic views of cities were highly popular among the affluent classes of the 19th century. In the big cities the viewers were able to enjoy the spectacle in purpose-built jalls. The panoramas were created by R. Barker. His son, H. A. Barker, continued this profitable entreprise with R. Burford (1818-1830). During the spectacle, they provided viewers with small pamphlets which contained city maps and annotations.
The observations made by the members of the Section of Architecture and Sculpture of the French Scientific Mision under G. A. Blouet are accompanied by drawings of excellent technique and high artistic quality. The conclusions of their research and the related graphic material, released in three monumental volumes (1831, 1833, 1838), contributed greatly to the perception of the monuments and constituted a work of reference for all subsequent studies. Monuments, sights, archaeological sites and landscapes of geological interest are depicted in the vignettes which illustrate the "Relation" of J.B. Bory de Saint Vincent (1836), which describes the journey of the Section of Natural Sciences of the Expedition Scientifique de Morée.
In the 19th century the Peloponnese becomes again one of the most visited areas and Methoni is a major port of entrance to the Greek State (A. Schweiger Lerchenfeld, J. Skene). Views of Methoni are also found in a highly successful work ofthe post-revolutionary period, that of Chr. Wordsworth (which is more of historical narrative than a travel chronicle). These views are either copies of other popular editons or executions in a novel style, influenced by Impressionism. The capacity for insight and keen observation evident throughout Henri Belle's text (1881) equally mark the illustrations of his travel account. On the whole, the artistic magazines of the 19th century published plates with views of significant monuments of the East, accompanied by thorough explanatory texts. They sold well, and aimed both at entertaining and educating the public (M. Busch, 1869).
In the first quarter of the 20th century, new techniques of representation such as photography coexist with older techniques (drawings and wood engravings). Details from the fortress of Methoni and Bourgi, the sea fortress of Methoni, built a small island at the port, are conveyed in the works by Fr. Perilla and R. Puaux.
Written by Ioli Vingopoulou
The isolario by G. Rosaccio (1598), influenced by earlier similar works, includes depictions of battles between Christians and Ottomans, including those that took place near Pylos.
V.M. Coronelli, the founder of the Academia Geografica dei Argonauti in Venice, published several editions illustrated with hundreds of copper engravings, which aimed at exalting Venice's victories during the Ottoman-Venetian war (1684-1687). Naturally, these editions include copper engravings (views and plans) of the wider area of Pylos, from Palaiokastron to Neokastron and Sphacteria. The engravings in the 1708 works by V. M. Coronelli are highly appealing, although most plates repeat subjects already published in earlier editions of the Accademia Cosmografica degli Argonauti. Copies of these drawings, identical or with variations accompanied the reprints or translations of these works, and illustrated later travel chronicles, history books and geographic editions (Ol. Dapper, 1688).
The editions by J. Enderlin include copies of engravings found in earlier or nearly contemporary popular works (1686).The editions by J. Peeters in the late 17th century (1690) exalt the victories of the Holy League in the Ottoman-Venetian wars. The plates show cities, ports and other locations in Austria, southeastern Europe, the eastern Mediterranean and places in Asia all the way to India.The plates in the work by J. Sandrart (1687) show castles and other location, in their majority under Ottoman rule. Several similar works which highlight the victories of the Venetians against the Ottomans in the Sixth Ottoman-Venetian War (1684-1699) were released during the same period. Clearly influenced by the editions of the Accademia Cosmografica degli Argonauti, G. Albrizzi's work (1687) includes a series of major fortresses, ports and towns, mainly of the Peloponnese.
Approximately a century later, a cartographic editon by J.N. Bellin (1771) mapping the anchorages of the Ionian and the Adriatic seas reserves Southwestern Messenia (including Pylos) an equally important position. At the beginning of the 19th century the entire area is mapped again in an important index of Mediterranean ports by J. Roux.
The first realistic depictions of the area appear in the edition by A.L. Castellan, where the illustrations are harmonious with the text in their objectivity and sensibility. These engravings inspired some of the drawings and the excellent lithographs published by the Expedition Scientifique de Morée, an expedition led by a team of scientists, who aside their task of recording and depicting the natural and archaeological landscape of the Peloponnese, also produced significant graphic material on the area, often original in the subjects it represented (J.-P.-Ε.-F. Peytier, 1829-32, 1833-35).
F.C.H.L. Pouqueville, 1835, who authored one of the most systematic texts on geomorphology of continental Greece, includes illustrations of Pylos in “Grèce”, another of his works (1835). On the whole, he uses views of the city that had already been published in popular and influential travel accounts.
In the 19th century the Peloponnese becomes again one of the most visited areas and Pylos, with its rich history and enchanting landscape, is highlighted in illustrations of travel accounts (E. Rey in 1867, J. Skene in 1838-45, A. Schweiger Lerchenfeld in 1887). Monuments, sights, archaeological sites and landscapes of geological interest are depicted in the vignettes which illustrate the "Relation" of J.B. Bory de Saint Vincent (1836), which describes the journey of the Section of Natural Sciences of the Expedition Scientifique de Morée. The highly successful work by Chr. Wordsworth (which is more of historical narrative than a travel chronicle) included views of Navarino area, copied from other editions or executed in a novel style (1882 reedition), while thorough topographical delineations of the area continue (Fr. Aldenhoven in 1841).
During the first quarter of the 20th century, the new technique of photography coexists with older techniques of representation (drawings, wood engraving, water colour). There are depictions of subjects related to the Battle of Navarino (1827) and details of main sights, castles of Pylos and historical locations on the bay of Navarino (Fr. Perilla in 1929, R. Puaux in 1932).
Written by Ioli Vingopoulou